You may wish to ask participants to complete surveys before and after the program (pre/post) or only after program participation (post-program). Each approach has pros and cons. Learn more here.

Surveys can be filled out by program participants themselves in a paper or electronic/online format or can be administered out loud by an interviewer or facilitator.

  • Saves time
  • Does not require an interviewer to be present
  • Does not risk interviewer bias
  • Offers the possibility of anonymity and privacy
  • Variations in literacy levels can influence results, and respondents do not have the chance to clarify questions they don't understand.


  • Likely to have fewer incomplete responses
  • Fewer misunderstood questions because respondents can ask clarifying questions
  • Opportunity for the interviewer to observe completion
  • Interviewers may introduce bias and the process is time-consuming.